教宗訓令 

《教宗訓令》的梵蒂岡手抄本

教宗訓令》(拉丁語Dictatus papae)是一份可能由教皇額我略七世簽署的關於27條應屬教皇之權力的文件。[1] 一些歷史學家認為這就是額我略七世本人寫下或口述的,另一些認為是後人所撰,其中的每一條訓令也有不同來源。[2] 1087年,紅衣主教狄烏迪弟發行了一系列獻給維克托三世赦令集,其中所包含的教會法來自他搜集的各種資源。《教宗訓令》與該赦令集是如此之相似,以至於有人認為宗教訓令就是在該訓令集的基礎上寫成的,所以其年代一定比1087年還遲。[3]

該訓令的宗旨是教皇至上,其中“他可以罷免皇帝”一條使得世俗與宗教權力的界限被打破,并引起了世俗力量,特別是神聖羅馬帝國皇帝亨利四世的反抗,自此之後教廷與神聖羅馬帝國世俗權力之間的裂痕就愈來愈深了。[4]

  1. ^ In a series of letters issued to bishop Opizo of Lodi. Paravicini Bagliani, Agostino. Sia fatta la mia volontà. Medioevo: p. 77. 
  2. ^ Ernst Sackur has made it probable that the so-called "Dictatus Papæ" were composed by Deusdedit.", Catholic Encyclopaedia, sub "Cardinal Deusdedit".
  3. ^ "Until quite recently Gregory VII himself was generally regarded as the author; Löwenfeld (see below) continued to maintain the authorship of Gregory, but Sackur, however, has shown that the "Indices capitulorum" in the "Collectio canonum" of Deusdedit are closely related to the brief theses known as "Dictatus Papæ" both in respect of sense and verbal text. Most probably, therefore, the latter are taken from the collection of Deusdedit, who put them together from the "Registrum Epistolarum" or letterbook of Gregory. Possibly also Deusdedit was the editor of this famous and important collection of Gregory's correspondence." Catholic Encyclopedia 1908, sub "Cardinal Deusdedit".
  4. ^ Dictatus papae, Western Oregon University



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