極權主義 

墨索里尼希特勒,攝於1937年。

極權主義(英語:totalitarianism,也譯作极权政体全能政体总体统治全体主义集權主义)或極權國家集權國家(英語:totalitarian state),是一種政治學上的術語,用來描述一個對社會有著絕對權威并儘一切可能謀求控制公眾與私人生活的國家政治制度[1]極權主義之概念在形成之初有著積極的含義,由威瑪德國法學家、納粹學者卡爾·施米特與一些意大利法西斯主義者英语Italian Fascism在1920年代提出。施米特在其有關全能(all-powerful,即統治一切)政府之合法性的、具有相當影響力的作品中使用了「Totalstaat」一詞。[2] 冷戰時期,這一概念在西方反共政治論述中尤為著名,通常被用以強調納粹德國法西斯主義國家與蘇聯之間的相似性。[3][4][5][6][7]其它運動與政府組織亦會被定性為極權主義。歷史上一個叫做西班牙右翼自治聯盟英语Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right保守主義運動之領袖就曾經宣告其目的是「為西班牙帶來真正的統一、全新的靈魂、極權的政體」,並且稱「民主不是終結,而是一個新的國家征戰四方的手段。當時機來臨,要麼國會屈服,要麼我們將消滅國會。」[8]

  1. ^ (英文)Robert Conquest. Reflections on a Ravaged Century [對一個被蹂躪的世紀的思考]. 2000: 74. ISBN 0-393-04818-7. 
  2. ^ (英文)Carl Schmitt. The Concept of the Political [政治的概念]. 1927: 22. 
  3. ^ (英文)Andrew Defty. Britain, America and Anti-Communist Propaganda 1945-1953: The Information Research Department [1945-1953年,不列顛、美利堅與反共宣傳:信息研究部門]. 2007. 
  4. ^ (英文)Achim Siegel. The totalitarian paradigm after the end of Communism: towards a theoretical reassessment [共產主義終結后的極權模範:接近一個理論上的重新評定]. Rodopi. 1998: 200. ISBN 90-420-0552-1. Concepts of totalitarianism became most widespread at the height of the Cold War. Since the late 1940s, especially since the Korean War, they were condensed into a far-reaching, even hegemonic, ideology, by which the political elites of the Western world tried to explain and even to justify the Cold War constellation.(在冷戰的白熱化時期,極權主義這一概念被廣泛使用。自1940年代末,尤其是自韓戰之後,此類頻繁出現的概念被凝聚成具有深遠含義甚至是霸權主義的意識形態,而西方世界的政治精英試著藉此解釋乃至正當化冷戰中的種種現象。) 
  5. ^ (英文)Nicholas Guilhot. The democracy makers: human rights and international order [民主的締造者:人權與國際秩序]. 2005: 33. The opposition between the West and Soviet totalitarianism was often presented as an opposition both moral and epistemological between truth and falsehood. The democratic, social, and economic credentials of the Soviet Union were typically seen as "lies" and as the product of a deliberate and multiform propaganda...In this context, the concept of totalitarianism was itself an asset. As it made possible the conversion of prewar anti-fascism into postwar anti-communism.(西方與蘇聯極權的對峙時常被形容成真相和謊言之間的道德與認知論的對峙。蘇聯的民主、社會與經濟成果是典型且常見的謊言與刻意造就出的多樣性政治宣傳……基於此,極權主義這個概念本身就是一種財富,它使戰前的反法西斯主義轉化作戰後的反共產主義成為可能。) 
  6. ^ (英文)David Caute. Politics and the novel during the Cold War [政治學與冷戰期間的小說]. 2009: 95–99. 
  7. ^ (英文)George A. Reisch. How the Cold War transformed philosophy of science: to the icy slopes of logic [冷戰怎樣影響了科學哲學:邏輯學的冰冷斜面]. 2005: 153–154. ISBN 978-0393329872. 
  8. ^ (英文)Paul Preston. The Spanish Civil War: reaction, revolution and revenge - 3rd edition [西班牙內戰:反動、革命與復仇 - 第3版]. W. W. New York, New York, USA: Norton & Company, Inc. 2007: 64. 



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