社會民主主義 

政治意识形态
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社會民主主義(Social democracy)是一種支持通過在自由民主體制資本主義經濟體系下,通過經濟干預和社會干預的手段促進社會正義意識形態。社會民主主義支持代議制參與民主制。社會民主主義主張实行收入再分配英语Redistribution of income and wealth,通過調控手段使經濟發展符合大眾共同利益英语Common good。建設福利國家亦是社會民主主義的目標之一[1][2][3]。社會民主主義希望使資本主義社會能更加民主、公正和團結。20世紀後半页,西歐北歐國家,尤其是實行北歐模式的北歐國家,都深受社會民主主義的影響[4][5]

社會民主主義起源於一種在已有政治框架下,通過和平方式對資本主義進行改良,實現從資本主義到社會主義過渡(而不是如革命社會主義那樣通過革命實現)的意識形態[6]二戰結束後,西歐的社會民主主義黨派均表示不接受當時蘇聯斯大林主義的政治經濟體制。一些黨派稱目標是採用與蘇聯不同的方法過渡到社會主義,而另一些黨派則表示他們的目標是建立一个資本主義和社會主義的混合體系[7]。在這一時期,社會民主主義黨派執政時通常會採用混合經濟體制,在經濟主體爲私有制的前提下,將部分產業置於國家的控制下。這種經濟體制與凱恩斯主義的主張有類似之处。同時,社會民主主義政黨提出通过國家干預和建設福利國家的主張。這樣的經濟體制已和社會主義經濟體制有本質上的不同。這些社會民主主義政黨已拋棄早期社會民主主義轉變資本主義體制(比如要素市場、私有制,以及僱傭勞動)的目標[4][8][9][10]

今日,社會民主主義主要的議題包括消除社會不平等貧困,以及特權階級對他人的壓迫[11]。同時,社會民主主義者還主張建立面向全民的公共服務體系,比如老人福祉英语Elderly care兒童保育義務教育全民健保勞工保障英语workers' compensation等體系[12]。社會民主主義亦與工人運動工會有着緊密聯繫。社會民主主義者支持工人的談判權,希望能將政治上的民主決策權延伸到經濟中,促進僱工与其他經濟利益相關者的共同決策[13]

第三条道路」吸收了社會民主主義中關於社會福利的部分主張,並將之與右派經濟體系融合[14]

  1. ^ Heywood 2012, p. 128: "Social democracy is an ideological stance that supports a broad balance between market capitalism, on the one hand, and state intervention, on the other hand. Being based on a compromise between the market and the state, social democracy lacks a systematic underlying theory and is, arguably, inherently vague. It is nevertheless associated with the following views: (1) capitalism is the only reliable means of generating wealth, but it is a morally defective means of distributing wealth because of its tendency towards poverty and inequality; (2) the defects of the capitalist system can be rectified through economic and social intervention, the state being the custodian of the public interest […]"
  2. ^ Miller 1998,第827页: "The idea of social democracy is now used to describe a society the economy of which is predominantly capitalist, but where the state acts to regulate the economy in the general interest, provides welfare services outside of it and attempts to alter the distribution of income and wealth in the name of social justice."
  3. ^ Badie, Berg-Schlosser & Morlino 2011, p. 2423: "Social democracy refers to a political tendency resting on three fundamental features: (1) democracy (e.g., equal rights to vote and form parties), (2) an economy partly regulated by the state (e.g., through Keynesianism), and (3) a welfare state offering social support to those in need (e.g., equal rights to education, health service, employment and pensions)."
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Weisskopf 1992, p. 10: "Thus social democrats do not try to do away with either the market or private property ownership; instead, they attempt to create conditions in which the operation of a capitalist market economy will lead to more egalitarian outcomes and encourage more democratic and more solidaristic practices than would a more conventional capitalist system."
  5. ^ Gombert et al. 2009, p. 8; Sejersted 2011.
  6. ^ Social democracy. Encyclopædia Britannica. [10 August 2015]. 
  7. ^ Adams 1993, pp. 102-103: "The emergence of social democracy was partly a result of the Cold War. People argued that if the Stalinist Soviet empire, where the state controlled everything, showed socialism in action, then socialism was not worth having. [...] The consensus policies of a mixed and managed economy and the welfare state, developed by the post-war Labour government, seemed in themselves to provide a basis for a viable socialism that would combine prosperity and freedom with social justice and the possibility of a full life for everyone. They could be seen as a compromise between socialism and capitalism."
  8. ^ Miller 1998,第827页: "In the second, mainly post-war, phase, social democrats came to believe that their ideals and values could be achieved by reforming capitalism rather than abolishing it. They favored a mixed economy in which most industries would be privately owned, with only a small number of utilities and other essential services in public ownership."
  9. ^ Jones 2001, p. 1410: "In addition, particularly since World War II, distinctions have sometimes been made between social democrats and socialists on the basis that the former have accepted the permanence of the mixed economy and have abandoned the idea of replacing the capitalist system with a qualitatively different socialist society."
  10. ^ Heywood 2012, pp. 125–128: "As an ideological stance, social democracy took shape around the mid-twentieth century, resulting from the tendency among western socialist parties not only to adopt parliamentary strategies, but also to revise their socialist goals. In particular, they abandoned the goal of abolishing capitalism and sought instead to reform or ‘humanize’ it. Social democracy therefore came to stand for a broad balance between the market economy, on the one hand, and state intervention, on the other."
  11. ^ Hoefer 2013, p. 29.
  12. ^ Meyer & Hinchman 2007, p. 137.
  13. ^ Meyer & Hinchman 2007, p. 91; Upchurch, Taylor & Mathers 2009, p. 51.
  14. ^ Romano 2006, p. 11.



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