咖啡因 

咖啡因
caffeine (INN)
2D structure of caffeine
3D structure of caffeine
系统(IUPAC)命名名称
1,3,7-Trimethylpurine-2,6-dione
临床数据
读音/kæˈfn, ˈkæfn/
Drugs.comMonograph
妊娠分级
  • AU: A
  • US: C (不排除有风险的可能)
依赖性生理: 低至中[1][2][3][4]
心理: 低[3]
成瘾性[4] / 无[1][2][3]
给药途径口服, 喷雾, 灌肠, 直肠, 静脉注射
合法狀態
合法状态
  • AU: Unscheduled
  • CA: Unscheduled
  • NZ: Unscheduled
  • UK: Unscheduled
  • US: Unscheduled
  • EU: Unscheduled
药代动力学数据
生物利用度99%[5]
蛋白结合度25–36%[6]
代谢主要: CYP1A2[6]
小部分: CYP2E1,[6] CYP3A4,[6] CYP2C8,[6] CYP2C9[6]
代謝產物副黄嘌呤 (84%)
可可碱 (12%)
茶碱 (4%)
開始出現藥效~1 小时[5]
生物半衰期成人: 3–7小时[6]
新生儿: 65–130小时[6]
作用时间3–4 小时[5]
排泄尿液(100%)
识别信息
CAS注册号58-08-2  ✓
ATC代码N06BC01
PubChemCID 2519
IUPHAR/BPS英语IUPHAR/BPS407
DrugBankDB00201 ✓
ChemSpider2424 ✓
UNII3G6A5W338E ✓
KEGGD00528 ✓
ChEBICHEBI:27732 ✓
ChEMBL英语ChEMBLCHEMBL113 ✓
其他名称Guaranine
Methyltheobromine
1,3,7-Trimethylxanthine
Theine
PDB配体IDCFF (PDBe, RCSB PDB)
化学信息
化学式C8H10N4O2
摩尔质量194.19 g/mol
物理性质
密度1.23 g/cm3
熔点235至238 °C(455至460 °F) (无水)[7][8]
Error in template * unknown parameter name (Template:Infobox_drug): 'InChI; InChIKey' (參見參數列表英语Template:Infobox drug/doc/full parameter list。)
此錯誤不會顯示於內文之中,僅會在預覽時顯示。

咖啡因(英語:caffeine)是一种黄嘌呤生物碱化合物。它主要存在于咖啡树茶树巴拉圭冬青(玛黛茶)及瓜拿纳的果实及叶片裡,而可可樹可樂果代茶冬青树也存在少量的咖啡因。存在于瓜拿纳中的咖啡因有时也被称为瓜拿纳因(guaranine),而存在于玛黛茶中的被称为马黛因(mateine),在茶中的则被称为茶素(theine)。总体上来说,作为一种自然杀虫剂,目前在超过60种植物的果实叶片种子中发现了咖啡因,它能使以这些植物为食的昆虫麻痹来达到杀虫的效果。

咖啡因是一种中枢神经兴奋剂,能暫時地驱走睡意并恢复精力,所以人们在从事思考阅读、会议等脑力劳动时,有时会选择摄入咖啡因来提神。有咖啡因成分的咖啡软饮料能量饮料十分畅销,因此也有一定的成癮性(Coffee addiction),咖啡因也是世界上最普遍被使用的精神药品。在北美,90%成年人每天都會需要攝食咖啡因。[9]

很多咖啡因的自然来源也含有多种其他的黄嘌呤生物碱,包括茶碱可可碱這兩種强心剂以及其他物质例如单宁酸

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE. Chapter 15: Reinforcement and Addictive Disorders. Sydor A, Brown RY (编). Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience 2nd. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. 2009: 375. ISBN 9780071481274. Long-term caffeine use can lead to mild physical dependence. A withdrawal syndrome characterized by drowsiness, irritability, and headache typically lasts no longer than a day. True compulsive use of caffeine has not been documented. 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 引用错误:没有为名为Clinical addiction & dependence的参考文献提供内容
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 American Psychiatric Association. Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders (PDF). American Psychiatric Publishing: 1–2. 2013 [2015-07-10]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2015-08-15). Substance use disorder in DSM-5 combines the DSM-IV categories of substance abuse and substance dependence into a single disorder measured on a continuum from mild to severe. ... Additionally, the diagnosis of dependence caused much confusion. Most people link dependence with “addiction” when in fact dependence can be a normal body response to a substance. ... DSM-5 will not include caffeine use disorder, although research shows that as little as two to three cups of coffee can trigger a withdrawal effect marked by tiredness or sleepiness. There is sufficient evidence to support this as a condition, however it is not yet clear to what extent it is a clinically significant disorder. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Introduction to Pharmacology Third Edition. Abingdon: CRC Press. 2007: 222–223. ISBN 9781420047424. 
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 5.2 Poleszak, Ewa; Szopa, Aleksandra; Wyska, Elżbieta; Kukuła-Koch, Wirginia; Serefko, Anna; Wośko, Sylwia; Bogatko, Karolina; Wróbel, Andrzej; Wlaź, Piotr. Caffeine augments the antidepressant-like activity of mianserin and agomelatine in forced swim and tail suspension tests in mice. Pharmacological Reports. July 2015 [12 September 2015-09-12]. doi:10.1016/j.pharep.2015.06.138. 
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 Caffeine. DrugBank. University of Alberta. 2013-09-16 [2014-08-08]. 
  7. ^ Caffeine. Pubchem Compound. NCBI. [16 October 2014-10-16].
    Boiling Point
    178 deg C (sublimes)
    Melting Point
    238 DEG C (ANHYD)
     
  8. ^ Caffeine. ChemSpider. Royal Society of Chemistry. [2014-10-16]. Experimental Melting Point:
    234–236 °C Alfa Aesar
    237 °C Oxford University Chemical Safety Data
    238 °C LKT Labs [C0221]
    237 °C Jean-Claude Bradley Open Melting Point Dataset 14937
    238 °C Jean-Claude Bradley Open Melting Point Dataset 17008, 17229, 22105, 27892, 27893, 27894, 27895
    235.25 °C Jean-Claude Bradley Open Melting Point Dataset 27892, 27893, 27894, 27895
    236 °C Jean-Claude Bradley Open Melting Point Dataset 27892, 27893, 27894, 27895
    235 °C Jean-Claude Bradley Open Melting Point Dataset 6603
    234–236 °C Alfa Aesar A10431, 39214
    Experimental Boiling Point:
    178 °C (Sublimes) Alfa Aesar
    178 °C (Sublimes) Alfa Aesar 39214
     
  9. ^ Lovett, Richard. Coffee: The demon drink? (PDF). New Scientist. 2005-09-24, (2518). (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2006-06-16). 



取材自維基百科 - 中文時事百科