女同性戀（L） ∙ 男同性戀 （G）|
双性恋 （B）∙ 跨性別（T）
Sexual orientation refers to the sex of those to whom one is sexually and romantically attracted. [...] [It is] one's enduring sexual attraction to male partners, female partners, or both. Sexual orientation may be heterosexual, samesex (gay or lesbian), or bisexual. [...] A person may be attracted to men, women, both, neither, or to people who are genderqueer, androgynous, or have other gender identities. Individuals may identify as lesbian, gay, heterosexual, bisexual, queer, pansexual, or asexual, among others. [...] Categories of sexual orientation typically have included attraction to members of one's own sex (gay men or lesbians), attraction to members of the other sex (heterosexuals), and attraction to members of both sexes (bisexuals). While these categories continue to be widely used, research has suggested that sexual orientation does not always appear in such definable categories and instead occurs on a continuum [...]. Some people identify as pansexual or queer in terms of their sexual orientation, which means they define their sexual orientation outside of the gender binary of 'male' and 'female' only.
No causal theory of sexual orientation has yet gained widespread support. The most scientifically plausible causal hypotheses are difficult to test. However, there is considerably more evidence supporting nonsocial causes of sexual orientation than social causes.
Various biological factors--including prenatal hormones and specific genetic profiles--are likely to contribute to sexual orientation, though they are not the sole cause. Scientific evidence suggests that biological and non-social environmental factors jointly influence sexual orientation. -- Scientific findings do not support the notion that sexual orientation can be taught or learned through social means. And there is little evidence to suggest that non-heterosexual orientations become more common with increased social tolerance.
Historically, researchers have presumed that sexual orientation shows fundamental continuity in its expression over time. Although this is generally true for most individuals, some studies have found that a number of individuals － more often women than men － report notable shifts in same-sex attractions, behaviors, and identities over time.
Sexual Fluidity attracted substantial media attention. However, the data Diamond collected began to be picked up by anti-gay groups, who espoused that being gay is a choice. Diamond has tried to make her findings clear: she did not find that women "choose" to be gay, or "choose" to become straight, rather, relationships and attractions happen, and there is really no "choice" involved..."This (research) does not mean that sexuality is chosen" - an important point that needs repeating.
(a) An enduring change to an individual's sexual orientation as a result of SOCE was unlikely, and some participants were harmed by the interventions; (b) sexual orientation identity—not sexual orientation—appears to change via psychotherapy, support groups, and life events
取材自維基百科 - 中文時事百科