同性戀 

同性戀,亦稱為同性向同性愛,是以同样的性别社会性别為對象建立起浪漫吸引、性吸引性行为親密關係[1],或以此性傾向做為主要自我認同的行為或現象[2]。同性戀連同雙性戀異性戀構成了性傾向連續光譜不同程度之別的三區帶[3][4][5]。對同性戀者常用的稱呼為同志,男性為男同志(Gay),女性為女同志(Lesbian)[6][7]

性傾向是個體對特定性別之人,感受到的持久性情感愛慕性吸引力。目前尚無研究能夠明確證實性傾向是由特定、或多種因素所引致[4]。但數篇生物學理論研究論文指出性傾向的形成可能涉及基因子宮環境等生物性因素[8][9],而由生物因子(基因激素)和非社會性的環境因子共同作用促成[10][11],科學證據不支持能由社會性手段教導或學習性傾向的說法[12]

科學研究已證實同性戀是人類性慾的自然展現型式之一[4],同性戀此性傾向與異性戀、雙性戀相同,其本身不造成任何心理傷害[4][13]。性傾向可能會在一生中發生某種程度的變化,或未必有固定的身份認同[14][15][16];不過,多數人對自己的性傾向沒有或有極少的選擇意識[4][10],並且沒有充足可靠的科學證據支持能用心理學手段干預性傾向[17][18][19]

不少同志處於互相承諾或同居的親密關係,有些也共同育養子女,但直到最近一些國家才展開針對同性親密同居的戶口調查[20][21],同志家戶的生活境況也開始獲得矚目[22][23][24][25]。在人類歷史上,同性間的親密關係與性行為受過推崇和迫害[26],而從十九世紀末開始,爭取同志社群能見度、同性親密關係社會承認和相關法律權利的全球性社會運動興起,要求保障同志在婚姻或民事結合、生育撫養、工作就業、從軍入伍、醫療照護上獲得平等對待的權利,並且推動立法或行政措施,制止性別歧视或對性傾向的仇恨言論霸凌行為[27][28][29]

  1. ^ Definitions Related to Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity in APA Documents (PDF). 美国心理学协会: 6. 2015 [February 6, 2020]. Sexual orientation refers to the sex of those to whom one is sexually and romantically attracted. [...] [It is] one's enduring sexual attraction to male partners, female partners, or both. Sexual orientation may be heterosexual, samesex (gay or lesbian), or bisexual. [...] A person may be attracted to men, women, both, neither, or to people who are genderqueer, androgynous, or have other gender identities. Individuals may identify as lesbian, gay, heterosexual, bisexual, queer, pansexual, or asexual, among others. [...] Categories of sexual orientation typically have included attraction to members of one's own sex (gay men or lesbians), attraction to members of the other sex (heterosexuals), and attraction to members of both sexes (bisexuals). While these categories continue to be widely used, research has suggested that sexual orientation does not always appear in such definable categories and instead occurs on a continuum [...]. Some people identify as pansexual or queer in terms of their sexual orientation, which means they define their sexual orientation outside of the gender binary of 'male' and 'female' only. 
  2. ^ 同性戀. 重編國語辭典修訂本. 中華民國教育部. 
  3. ^ 台灣同志諮詢熱線協會. 認識同志手冊 (PDF). 2011. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 美國心理學學會. 解答你的問題:深入理解性傾向和同性戀 (PDF). 2008 [2015-04-07]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2017-06-24). 
  5. ^ Ritch C. Savin-Williams. Sexual Orientation: Categories or Continuum? Commentary on Bailey et al.. Psychological Science in the Public Interest. 2016, 17 (2). 
  6. ^ 同志. 重編國語辭典修訂本. 中華民國教育部. 
  7. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为2010ton的参考文献提供内容
  8. ^ The evolutionary puzzle of homosexuality. BBC. [2016-01-25]. (原始内容存档于2015-11-03). 
  9. ^ J. Michael Bailey; Marc Epprecht; Eric Vilain; S. Marc Breedlove; Lisa M. Diamond; Paul L. Vasey. Sexual Orientation, Controversy, and Science. Psychological Science in the Public Interest. 2016, 17 (2): 45–101. No causal theory of sexual orientation has yet gained widespread support. The most scientifically plausible causal hypotheses are difficult to test. However, there is considerably more evidence supporting nonsocial causes of sexual orientation than social causes. 
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 Royal College of Psychiatrists. Royal College of Psychiatrists' statement on sexual orientation (PDF). 2014 [2015-04-07]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2017-08-09). 
  11. ^ Swedish twin study: Q & A with J. Michael Bailey. [2016-01-25]. (原始内容存档于2016-02-02). 
  12. ^ What Scientists Know—And Don't Know—About Sexual Orientation. Association for Psychological Science. 2016-04-25. Various biological factors--including prenatal hormones and specific genetic profiles--are likely to contribute to sexual orientation, though they are not the sole cause. Scientific evidence suggests that biological and non-social environmental factors jointly influence sexual orientation. -- Scientific findings do not support the notion that sexual orientation can be taught or learned through social means. And there is little evidence to suggest that non-heterosexual orientations become more common with increased social tolerance. 
  13. ^ 葉金源. 對於同性戀者常有的疑問. 成功大學醫學院. 2007-03-27 [2015-04-07]. (原始内容存档于2015-04-14). 
  14. ^
    • Lisa Diamond. Concepts of Female Sexual Orientation. 2013. Historically, researchers have presumed that sexual orientation shows fundamental continuity in its expression over time. Although this is generally true for most individuals, some studies have found that a number of individuals - more often women than men - report notable shifts in same-sex attractions, behaviors, and identities over time. 
    • Lisa Diamond - Psychology's Feminist Voices. Sexual Fluidity attracted substantial media attention. However, the data Diamond collected began to be picked up by anti-gay groups, who espoused that being gay is a choice. Diamond has tried to make her findings clear: she did not find that women "choose" to be gay, or "choose" to become straight, rather, relationships and attractions happen, and there is really no "choice" involved..."This (research) does not mean that sexuality is chosen" - an important point that needs repeating. 
  15. ^ 王晧安. 性別大補帖:疑性戀就是流性戀. 台灣立報. 2013-10-31. 
  16. ^ APA Task Force. Report of the American Psychological Association Task Force on Appropriate Therapeutic Repsonses to Sexual Orientation (PDF). [2019-02-24]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2013-06-03). (a) An enduring change to an individual's sexual orientation as a result of SOCE was unlikely, and some participants were harmed by the interventions; (b) sexual orientation identity—not sexual orientation—appears to change via psychotherapy, support groups, and life events 
  17. ^ American Psychological Association. Resolution on Appropriate Affirmative Responses to Sexual Orientation Distress and Change Efforts. 2009 [2015-04-07]. (原始内容存档于2018-04-22). 
  18. ^ Human Rights Campaign. Policy and Position Statements on Conversion Therapy. [2017-05-09]. (原始内容存档于2017-04-27). 
  19. ^ Pan American Health Organization. Cures for an Illness That Does Not Exist. 2012-05-17 [2015-04-07]. 
  20. ^ Susan Donaldson James. Census 2010: One-Quarter of Gay Couples Raising Children. Contra Costa Times. 2011-06-23 [2015-04-12]. (原始内容存档于2017-06-30) (英语). 
  21. ^ Gates, Gary J.; Cooke, Abigail M. United States Census Snapshot: 2010 (PDF). Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. 2011 [2015-04-14]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2015-06-26). 
  22. ^ 同學陣 hgf. Zach Wahls - 我的兩個媽 (My Two Moms). 2014-01-27 [2017-05-09]. 
  23. ^ 中國同志家庭面臨重重考驗. 鳳凰週刊. 2015-12-10 [2015-12-10] (中文(简体)‎). 
  24. ^ 花了十五年,我終於攜愛人同志和兒子回家過年. 端傳媒. 2016-02-14. 
  25. ^ 同志家庭與他們的孩子. 報導者. 2016-05-06. 
  26. ^ The Androphile Project. 同性戀史研究:男性愛的世界史. 2009 [2017-05-09]. (原始内容存档于2010-07-15). 
  27. ^ Declaration of Montréal. 2006 [2015-04-08]. 
  28. ^ 日惹原則——關於將國際人權法應用於性傾向和性別認同相關事務的原則. 2006 [2017-05-09]. 
  29. ^ Joint Statement on the Rights of LGBT Persons at the Human Rights Council. 2011 [2015-04-21]. (原始内容存档于2015-04-21). 



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