政治光譜 

政治意識形態
系列條目
思想流派
政治光譜
統治體制日语統治機構

政治光譜(英語:political spectrum),也称政治坐标,是用作量度個人政治立場傾向(即不同意识形态)的工具。政治光譜正如一般光譜一樣,由一条或多条几何学上的坐標軸構成[1]。政治光譜这一概念通常指代常用的二维政治光譜模型[2][3][4][5]

大多数政治光谱都包括两大派,左派和右派,这是从18世纪法国大革命时期法国议会的坐席方向沿袭而来的,在当时左派偏向激进政治英语Political radicalism右派偏向贵族政治[1][6][7]。现今,共产主义社会主义在国际上常被视为左派,而保守主义反动主义则常被视为右派[1]自由主義因在不同的语境下指代不同位置也不同,有时为左派社會自由主義),有时为右派保守自由主義經濟自由主義)。觀點中等的人有時被列為中間派。完全不使用传统左右划分的政治常被称为融合政治英语Syncretic politics[8][9],尽管这个标签往往会把那些在双轴图表上有逻辑位置的信念错误地带到另一种单轴划分上。

政治學家注意到,一個單一的左右軸太簡單了,不足以描述政治信念的現有變化,因此在政治信念的探讨上常常使用两维或更高维度的图表描述政治信念[1][10]。常用的二维光谱的两个坐标轴多为经济轴(左对右)和社会文化轴(权威对自由),尽管各个图表对轴线方向的用词可能各不相同[1][11]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Heywood, Andrew. Political Ideologies: An Introduction 6th. Basingstoke: Macmillan International Higher Education. 2017: 14–17. ISBN 9781137606044. OCLC 988218349. 
  2. ^ Petrik, Andreas. Core Concept "Political Compass". How Kitschelt's Model of Liberal, Socialist, Libertarian and Conservative Orientations Can Fill the Ideology Gap in Civic Education. JSSE – Journal of Social Science Education. 2010-12-03: 4–2010: Social Science Literacy I: In Search for Basic Competences and Basic Concepts for Testing and Diagnosing [2019-06-27]. doi:10.4119/jsse-541. (原始内容存档于2019-06-22) (英语). 
  3. ^ Sznajd-Weron, Katarzyna; Sznajd, Józef. Who is left, who is right?. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and Its Applications. June 2005, 351 (2–4): 593–604. Bibcode:2005PhyA..351..593S. doi:10.1016/j.physa.2004.12.038 (英语). 
  4. ^ Lester, J. C. The Political Compass and Why Libertarianism is not Right-Wing. Journal of Social Philosophy. September 1996, 27 (2): 176–186. ISSN 0047-2786. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9833.1996.tb00245.x (英语). 
  5. ^ Stapleton, Julia. Resisting the Centre at the Extremes: 'English' Liberalism in the Political Thought of Interwar Britain. The British Journal of Politics and International Relations. October 1999, 1 (3): 270–292. ISSN 1369-1481. doi:10.1111/1467-856X.00016 (英语). 
  6. ^ Knapp, Andrew; Wright, Vincent. 1 French political traditions in a changing context (ebk). The Government and Politics of France 5. Taylor and Francis. 2006. ISBN 978-0-203-40260-3 (英语). France invented the terms Left and Right early in the great Revolution of 1789– 94 which first limited the powers of, and then overthrew, the Bourbon monarchy. [失效連結]
  7. ^ Norberto Bobbio. Left and Right: The Significance of a Political Distinction. John Wiley & Sons. 2016: 112. ISBN 978-1-5095-1412-0. 
  8. ^ Griffin, Roger. Fascism. Oxford University Press. 1995: 8,307. ISBN 978-0-19-289249-2. 
  9. ^ Eatwell, Roger. A 'Spectral-Syncretic' Approach to Fascism. Kallis, Aristotle A. (编). The fascism reader. Routledge. 2003: 71. ISBN 978-0-415-24359-9. 
  10. ^ Fenna, Alan; Robbins, Jane; Summers, John. Government Politics in Australia. Robbins, Jane., Summers, John. 10th. Melbourne: Pearson Higher Education AU. 2013: 126 f. ISBN 9781486001385. OCLC 1021804010. 
  11. ^ Love, Nancy Sue. Understanding Dogmas and Dreams Second. Washington, District of Columbia: CQ Press. 2006: 16. ISBN 9781483371115. OCLC 893684473. 



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