卡尼期洪積事件 

三叠纪主要分界
-250 —
-245 —
-240 —
-235 —
-230 —
-225 —
-220 —
-215 —
-210 —
-205 —
-200 —
三叠纪时间表
直轴:百万年前

卡尼期洪積事件(Carnian Pluvial Event,簡稱CPE),是全球氣候發生重大變化和生物更替的時期,發生在晚三疊世早期的卡尼期[3],約2.34億到2.32億年前[4][5]。此時期的特徵是來自高等植物的化石分子(正構烷烴)的碳穩定同位素(δ13C)和總有機碳中有大約4‰的負移[6] 。於牙形磷灰石中發現的氧穩定同位素(δ18O)的約1.5‰負移表明該時期出現了全球性的升溫[7][8]。在卡尼期洪積事件期間,負責生產碳酸鈣的生物發生了重大變化.[9][10][11]。在意大利南部的深水環境中觀察到此時期碳酸鹽沉澱發生了停止,原因可能為碳酸鹽補償深度(CCD)升高[12]菊石牙形石苔蘚蟲海百合的滅絕率在此時期增高[3]。卡尼期洪積事件之後,生物的進化向前邁進了一大步,恐龍哺乳形类在這個時期之後開始出現[4][6][13]

  1. ^ McElwain, J. C.; Punyasena, S. W. Mass extinction events and the plant fossil record. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 2007, 22 (10): 548–557. PMID 17919771. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2007.09.003. 
  2. ^ Payne, J. L.; Lehrmann, D. J.; Wei, J.; Orchard, M. J.; Schrag, D. P.; Knoll, A. H. Large Perturbations of the Carbon Cycle During Recovery from the End-Permian Extinction. Science. 2004, 305 (5683): 506–9. PMID 15273391. doi:10.1126/science.1097023. 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 Simms, M. J.; Ruffell, A. H. Synchroneity of climatic change and extinctions in the Late Triassic. Geology. 1989, 17 (3): 265–268. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1989)017<0265:soccae>2.3.co;2. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Furin, S.; Preto, N.; Rigo, M.; Roghi, G.; Gianolla, P.; Crowley, J.L.; Bowring, S.A. High-precision U-Pb zircon age from the Triassic of Italy: Implications for the Triassic time scale and the Carnian origin of calcareous nannoplankton, lepidosaurs, and dinosaurs. Geology. 2006, 34 (12): 1009–1012. doi:10.1130/g22967a.1. 
  5. ^ Dal Corso, Jacopo; Bernardi, Massimo; Sun, Yadong; Song, Haijun; Seyfullah, Leyla J.; Preto, Nereo; Gianolla, Piero; Ruffell, Alastair; Kustatscher, Evelyn; Roghi, Guido; Merico, Agostino. Extinction and dawn of the modern world in the Carnian (Late Triassic). Science Advances. 2020, 6 (38): eaba0099. ISSN 2375-2548. PMC 7494334可免费查阅. PMID 32938682. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aba0099 (英语). 
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 Dal Corso, J.; Mietto, P.; Newton, R.J.; Pancost, R.D.; Preto, N.; Roghi, G.; Wignall, P.B. Discovery of a major negative δ13C spike in the Carnian (Late Triassic) linked to the eruption of Wrangellia flood basalts. Geology. 2012, 40 (1): 79–82. doi:10.1130/g32473.1. 
  7. ^ Hornung, T.; Brandner, R.; Krystin, L.; Joachimski, M.M.; Keim, L. Multistratigraphic constrains in the NW Tethyan "Carnina Crisis". New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin. 2007, 41: 59–67. 
  8. ^ Rigo, M.; Joachimski, M.M. Palaeoecology of Late Triassic conodonts: Constraints from oxygen isotopes in biogenic apatite. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 2010, 55 (3): 471–478. doi:10.4202/app.2009.0100可免费查阅. 
  9. ^ Keim, L.; Schlager, W. Quantitative compositional analysis of a Triassic carbonate platform (Southern Alps, Italy). Sedimentary Geology. 2001, 139 (3–4): 261–283. doi:10.1016/s0037-0738(00)00163-9. 
  10. ^ Hornung, T.; Krystin, L.; Brandner, R. A Tethys-wide mid-Carnian (Upper Triassic) carbonate productivity crisis: Evidence for the Alpine Reingraben Event from Spiti (Indian Himalaya)?. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences. 2007, 30 (2): 285–302. doi:10.1016/j.jseaes.2006.10.001. 
  11. ^ Stefani, M.; Furin, S.; Gianolla, P. The changing climate framework and depositional dynamics of Triassic carbonate platforms from the Dolomites. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 2010, 290 (1–4): 43–57. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.02.018. 
  12. ^ Rigo, M.; Preto, N.; Roghi, G.; Tateo, F.; Mietto, P. A rise in the Carbonate Compensation Depth of western Tethys in the Carnian: deep-water evidence for the Carnian Pluvial Event. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 2007, 246: 188–205. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2006.09.013. 
  13. ^ Jones, M.E.H.; Anderson, C.L.; Hipsley, C.A.; Müller, J.; Evans, S.E.; Schoch, R. Integration of molecules and new fossils supports a Triassic origin for Lepidosauria (lizards, snakes, and tuatara). BMC Evolutionary Biology. 2013, 12: 208. PMC 4016551可免费查阅. PMID 24063680. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-13-208. 



取材自維基百科 - 中文時事百科