科学 

宇宙,以随时间变动的一系列圆盘状“切片”表示,时间轴从左到右。

科学(英语:science,词源为拉丁文“scientia”,意为“知识”)[1]是一种系统性的知識體系,它积累和组织並可檢驗有关于宇宙解释预测[2][a]。科学强调预测结果的具体性和可证伪性,这有别于空泛的哲学。科学也不等同于寻求绝对无误的真理,而是在现有基础上,摸索式地不断接近真理。故科学的发展史就是一部人类对宇宙的认识偏差的纠正史。

科学的源头最早可追溯到约公元前3500年至前3000年的古埃及两河流域[3][4]。这两个文明在数学天文医学方面的成就传入并塑造了古典时代希腊自然哲学,后者正式尝试以自然原因来解释物质世界中的事件[3][4]西罗马帝国倾覆后,在中世纪的头几个世纪(约公元400年至1000年)中,有关古希腊人的世界观念英语History of science in classical antiquity的知识在西欧渐渐被遗忘[5],但却在伊斯兰黄金时代穆斯林世界中得以保存下来[6]。10世纪到13世纪,西欧找回了古希腊的著作并吸收了伊斯兰学者的研究,自然哲学就此复活[5][7],并且接下来在始于16世纪的科学革命[8]中转型,其间的新观念和新发现脱离了古希腊观念和传统之窠臼[9][10][11][12]科学方法迅速在获取知识方面起到更大作用,不过科学的制度化和职业化还是要等到19世纪英语19th century in science才开始成型[13][14][15]

科学原仅指对自然现象之规律的探索与总结,但人文学科也越来越多地被冠以“科学”之名。现代科学一般说来可划分为三大分支形式科学(如逻辑数学理论计算机科学),研究抽象概念;自然科学(如生物学化学物理学地理学),在最宽泛的意义上研究自然;以及社会科学(如经济学心理学社会学),研究个体与社会。不过,对于形式科学能否确实算作一类科学存在不同意见[16][17],因为其并不依赖经验证据[18]。而运用既有科学知识以达成实用目的的学科,如工程学和医学,则被归为应用科学[19][20][21][22]

科学以研究为基础,而研究通常是在学术英语Academic institution研究机构、以及政府机构公司中进行。科学研究的实际影响使得科学政策英语Science policy被制订出来,以求施影响于科学界,促使商业产品武器医疗卫生以及环境保护获得优先发展。

  1. ^ Harper, Douglas. science. Online Etymology Dictionary. [September 20, 2014]. 
  2. ^ Wilson, E.O. The natural sciences. Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge Reprint. New York, New York: Vintage. 1999: 49–71. ISBN 978-0-679-76867-8. 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 Lindberg, David C. Science before the Greeks. The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context Second. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. 2007: 1–27. ISBN 978-0-226-48205-7. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Grant, Edward. Ancient Egypt to Plato. A History of Natural Philosophy: From the Ancient World to the Nineteenth Century First. New York, New York: Cambridge University Press. 2007: 1–26. ISBN 978-052-1-68957-1. 
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 Lindberg, David C. The revival of learning in the West. The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context Second. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. 2007: 193–224. ISBN 978-0-226-48205-7. 
  6. ^ Lindberg, David C. Islamic science. The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context Second. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. 2007: 163–92. ISBN 978-0-226-48205-7. 
  7. ^ Lindberg, David C. The recovery and assimilation of Geek and Islamic science. The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context 2nd. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. 2007: 225–53. ISBN 978-0-226-48205-7. 
  8. ^ Principe, Lawrence M. Introduction. Scientific Revolution: A Very Short Introduction First. New York, New York: Oxford University Press. 2011: 1–3. ISBN 978-0-199-56741-6. 
  9. ^ Lindberg, David C. Conceptions of the Scientific Revolution from Baker to Butterfield: A preliminary sketch. David C. Lindberg; Robert S. Westman (编). Reappraisals of the Scientific Revolution First. Chicago, Illinois: Cambridge University Press. 1990: 1–26. ISBN 978-0-521-34262-9. 
  10. ^ Lindberg, David C. The legacy of ancient and medieval science. The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context 2nd. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. 2007: 357–368. ISBN 978-0-226-48205-7. 
  11. ^ Del Soldato, Eva. Zalta, Edward N. , 编. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Fall 2016. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. 2016 [2019-05-16]. (原始内容存档于2019-12-11). 
  12. ^ Grant, Edward. Transformation of medieval natural philosophy from the early period modern period to the end of the nineteenth century. A History of Natural Philosophy: From the Ancient World to the Nineteenth Century First. New York, New York: Cambridge University Press. 2007: 274–322. ISBN 978-052-1-68957-1. 
  13. ^ Cahan, David (编). From Natural Philosophy to the Sciences: Writing the History of Nineteenth-Century Science. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. 2003. ISBN 978-0-226-08928-7. 
  14. ^ The Oxford English Dictionary dates the origin of the word "scientist" to 1834.
  15. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为Lightman 19th的参考文献提供内容
  16. ^ Bishop, Alan. Environmental activities and mathematical culture. Mathematical Enculturation: A Cultural Perspective on Mathematics Education. Norwell, Massachusetts: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 1991: 20–59 [2019-05-16]. ISBN 978-0-792-31270-3. (原始内容存档于2020-12-25). 
  17. ^ Bunge, Mario. The Scientific Approach. Philosophy of Science: Volume 1, From Problem to Theory 1 revised. New York, New York: Routledge. 1998: 3–50. ISBN 978-0-765-80413-6. 
  18. ^ Fetzer, James H. Computer reliability and public policy: Limits of knowledge of computer-based systems. Computers and Cognition: Why Minds are not Machines 1st. Newcastle, United Kingdom: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 2013: 271–308. ISBN 978-1-443-81946-6. 
  19. ^ Fischer, M.R.; Fabry, G. Thinking and acting scientifically: Indispensable basis of medical education. GMS Zeitschrift für Medizinische Ausbildung. 2014, 31 (2): Doc24. PMC 4027809可免费查阅. PMID 24872859. doi:10.3205/zma000916. 
  20. ^ Abraham, Reem Rachel. Clinically oriented physiology teaching: strategy for developing critical-thinking skills in undergraduate medical students. Advances in Physiology Education. 2004, 28 (3): 102–04. PMID 15319191. doi:10.1152/advan.00001.2004. 
  21. ^ Sinclair, Marius. On the Differences between the Engineering and Scientific Methods. The International Journal of Engineering Education. [2019-05-16]. (原始内容存档于2017-11-15). 
  22. ^ Engineering Technology :: Engineering Technology :: Purdue School of Engineering and Technology, IUPUI. www.engr.iupui.edu. [2018-09-07]. (原始内容存档于2018-09-03). 


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