圣书体 

埃及人墓碑上的象形文字
孟斐斯博物馆的象形文字,后面是拉美西斯二世的塑像

圣书文(或称圣书字圣书体神碑体)是古代埃及的正式书写体系,它由表音字母,表意文字共同构成,并被分为音节。它拥有1000多个单独的文字图形。[1][2]圣书字有三种字体,其中碑铭体(圣书体)被视为正规体,此外還有草体的「僧侣体」和简化的「大众体」(或称世俗体)。

圣书字发源于5200年前(即公元前32世纪)的青铜时代早期,最早的被破解的成句的书写文字来自第二王朝(前28世纪),并在中王国时期形成了成熟的书写文字体系。圣书字一直使用到公元5世纪后消亡。1820年,法国语言学家商博良罗塞塔石碑的帮助下重新破解。

  1. ^ There were about 1,000 graphemes in the Old Kingdom period, reduced to around 750 to 850 in the classical language of the Middle Kingdom, but inflated to the order of some 5,000 signs in the Ptolemaic period. Antonio Loprieno, Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1995), p. 12.
  2. ^ The standard inventory of characters used in Egyptology is 加汀納符號表 (1928–1953). A.H. Gardiner (1928), Catalogue of the Egyptian hieroglyphic printing type, from matrices owned and controlled by Dr. Alan Gardiner, "Additions to the new hieroglyphic fount (1928)", in The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 15 (1929), p. 95; , "Additions to the new hieroglyphic fount (1931)", in The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 17 (1931), pp. 245-247; A.H. Gardiner , "Supplement to the catalogue of the Egyptian hieroglyphic printing type, showing acquisitions to December 1953" (1953). Unicode Egyptian Hieroglyphs英语Egyptian Hieroglyphs (Unicode block) as of version 5.2 (2009) assigned 1,070 Unicode characters.



取材自維基百科 - 中文時事百科