百科全书 

1541年版本"Lucubrationes..."的扉页,首本在书名中使用“百科全书”这个词的书

百科全书(英語:encyclopedia)是概要介绍人类全部知识或某一特定领域或学科的工具书纲要英语compendium[1]。 百科全书按照字典顺序或专题类别划分条目[2]。百科全书条目比大多数詞典中的词条更长、更详细[2]。一般来说,不同于专注于词汇语言学信息(如其意思、发音、用法和语法形式)的词典词条,百科全书条目侧重于条目标题中命名的主题的事實信息[3][4][5][6]

百科全书已经存在了2000年左右,自那时以来,百科全书的语言(用国际性主要语言编写还是用本土语言)、规模(很小还是多卷)、意图(呈现全球还是有限范围的知识)、文化观念(权威、意识形态、说教、功利)、编者群(资格、风格)、读者群(教育程度、背景、兴趣、能力)以及用于制作和分发的技术(手写手稿、少量或大量印刷、互联网制作)已经有了很大的发展。作为专家汇编的可靠信息的重要来源,可以在图书馆、学校和其他教育机构中的明显位置找到。

20世纪数字和开源版本的出现大大扩展了可访问性、作者群、读者群和百科全书条目的多样性,也引起了对百科全书是什么,以及把传统组装、评价纸质百科全书的标准用于如今这种动态制作模式是否适当的质疑。

  1. ^ Encyclopedia.. (原始内容存档于2007-08-03).  Glossary of Library Terms. Riverside City College, Digital Library/Learning Resource Center. Retrieved on: November 17, 2007.
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Hartmann, R. R. K.; James, Gregory; James, Gregory. Dictionary of Lexicography. Routledge. 1998: 48 [2010-07-27]. ISBN 0-415-14143-5. 
  3. ^ Béjoint, Henri (2000). Modern Lexicography, pp. 30–31. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-829951-6
  4. ^ Encyclopaedia. Encyclopædia Britannica. [2010-07-27]. An English lexicographer, H.W. Fowler, wrote in the preface to the first edition (1911) of The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English language that a dictionary is concerned with the uses of words and phrases and with giving information about the things for which they stand only so far as current use of the words depends upon knowledge of those things. The emphasis in an encyclopedia is much more on the nature of the things for which the words and phrases stand. 
  5. ^ Hartmann, R. R. K.; Gregory, James. Dictionary of Lexicography. Routledge. 1998: 49 [2010-07-27]. ISBN 0-415-14143-5. In contrast with linguistic information, encyclopedia material is more concerned with the description of objective realities than the words or phrases that refer to them. In practice, however, there is no hard and fast boundary between factual and lexical knowledge. 
  6. ^ Cowie, Anthony Paul. The Oxford History of English Lexicography, Volume I. Oxford University Press. 2009: 22 [2010-08-17]. ISBN 0-415-14143-5. An 'encyclopedia' (encyclopaedia) usually gives more information than a dictionary; it explains not only the words but also the things and concepts referred to by the words. 



取材自維基百科 - 中文時事百科